Solar PV system is designed with several components. The most vital and biggest part is the solar panels, mounting platforms, solar inverters and cabling infrastructure. These components are combined to harness the sunrays and change it into electricity. This power can be used in businesses and residences to operate electrical appliances, lights, and HVAC.
Overview of solar PV systems working mechanism
Solar panels are well-known part of PV system because they are noticeable and perched on the rooftops. Solar panels are regarded as blood circulation network of solar power system. It absorbs the sun’s radiation and commences the process of transforming sunrays into electrical current. Creating electric current is the main task of solar panels.
These are available in different shapes and sizes. The panels are designed from grouping solar cells, which are wired together and framed in a glass casing for protection against various elements.
Basically, solar cells are made from semi-conducting material like silicon, which are slotted in between +ve and -ve charges. When sunrays fall on the cell, photons within sunlight hit free electrons in the semi-conducting material. This results in flow of electricity. There are conductive metal plates on the sides of cell that accumulate electrons and transport them through wires, just like electric current.
Basically, solar cells made from monocrystalline silicon material, which is efficient but thin film and polycrystalline cells are less expensive. Electrical solar power output depends on the solar cell number as well as overall solar panel array and size. More solar cells and large solar panel array enables more generation of electricity.
Solar inverters are the brain of the entire system. The radiant sun energy that is transformed into DC power gets converted into AC current. Generally, all electrical appliances operate on AC power and even the grid system runs on alternating current. Solar panels cannot generate AC power, but solar inverters are capable of moving backward and forward between DC and AC power.
Three kinds of solar inverters
1. Stand alone inverters - Good for non-grid system
2. Grid-tied inverters - Compatible with utility grid
3. Battery backup inverters - Supplies AC current, during outage situation
Cables and wires
Cabling and wires are regarded as the blood vessels that bring converted power within homes. Solar cable is a wire that joins all the solar PV system components. Cabling network differs, but are generally designed to handle temperature fluctuations because they are used outdoors. Solar cable need to be insulated well to endure mechanical and thermal loads. Plastic is used for protection against humidity and solar radiation, which could eventually corrode the wiring system.
Mounting system is considered as the skeleton of solar PV system. Solar panel arrays reside on these mounting platforms. Mostly, solar systems are mounted on rooftops to gain more access to direct sunrays. In addition, you can erect mounting systems on the ground or pole structures.
PV arrays are mounted parallel to surface with little space between roof and the system. Arrays are mounted at an angle to capture sunlight. Utility companies produce large quantity of electricity, so they use ground mounted systems. Check out Los Angeles solar power systems working mechanism in depth on the internet.